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When palmitoyl CoA is oxidized how many acetyl CoA are produced?

8 acetyl

How many molecules of acetyl CoA are produced in oxidation of palmitic acid c16 which involves seven rounds of oxidation?

Oxidation of of palmitic acid yields 7 NADH + 7 FADH2 + 8 acetyl-CoA in 7 cycles of mitochondrial beta oxidation.

How much ATP can oxidation of palmitate yield?

Complete oxidation of one palmitate molecule (fatty acid containing 16 carbons) generates 129 ATP molecules.

How is acetyl CoA generated for synthesis of palmitate?

The synthesis of palmitate requires the input of 8 molecules of acetyl CoA, 14 molecules of NADPH, and 7 molecules of ATP. Fatty acids are synthesized in the cytosol, whereas acetyl CoA is formed from pyruvate in mitochondria. Hence, acetyl CoA must be transferred from mitochondria to the cytosol.

What is the cost of synthesizing palmitate from acetyl-CoA?

42 ATP

How is malonyl-CoA produced?

Malonyl-CoA is formed by carboxylating acetyl-CoA using the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase. One molecule of acetyl-CoA joins with a molecule of bicarbonate, requiring energy rendered from ATP. Malonyl-CoA is utilised in fatty acid biosynthesis by the enzyme malonyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT).

What is the purpose of malonyl CoA?

Malonyl-CoA is a key regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the heart. It is a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1), a key enzyme involved in the mitochondrial uptake of fatty acids (Fig.

What is the function of malonyl CoA?

Malonyl CoA is an inhibitor of CPT1, the enzyme that controls the transfer of long-chain fatty acyl (LCFA) CoA molecules from the cytosol into mitochondria where they are oxidized.

How many carbons does acetyl CoA have?


What can acetyl CoA be converted to?

It can be converted to fatty acids, which in turn give rise to: triglycerides (triacylglycerols) Explore. phospholipids.

Why is acetyl CoA called the universal common intermediate?

Acetyl CoA is called the universal or common intermediate in cellular respiration because: it is the central converting substance in the metabolism of fat, CHO, and protein. pyruvate by aerobic glycolysis or lactate by anaerobic glycolysis.

Can Acetyl CoA be converted to glucose?

Fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids cannot be used to synthesize glucose. The transition reaction is a one-way reaction, meaning that acetyl-CoA cannot be converted back to pyruvate. As a result, fatty acids can’t be used to synthesize glucose, because beta-oxidation produces acetyl-CoA.

Can the body convert fat to glucose?

At the end of the day your body will replenish depleted glycogen stores through a process called Gluconeogenesis, where it takes fats and/or proteins and coverts them to glucose for storage in the liver, kidneys, and muscles.

Where does acetyl CoA come from?

Acetyl-CoA is a metabolite derived from glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid catabolism. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate.

Why can’t ketogenic amino acids make glucose?

Ketogenic amino acids are unable to be converted to glucose as both carbon atoms in the ketone body are ultimately degraded to carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle.

Which amino acid is ketogenic but not Glucogenic?

Lysine and leucine are ketogenic only and the remaining amino acids are solely glucogenic: arginine, glutamate, gluamine, histidine, proline, valine, methionine, aspartate, asparagine, alanine, serine, cysteine, and glycine.

Does BCAA affect ketosis?

“Always keep your intake to 1-2 servings per day and 4-5 grams per workout as drinking too many BCAA-enriched fluids can increase your insulin levels, which may kick you out of ketosis”.

Which amino acid is considered as both ketogenic and Glucogenic?

Isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine are both ketogenic and glucogenic.

Which of the following is both glucogenic and ketogenic?

Which among the following is both glucogenic and ketogenic? Explanation: Isoleucine produces both glucose and ketone bodies as an energy source. Explanation: In case of Glycogenic amino acids pyruvate metabolites are formed and in case of ketogenic amino acids acetoacyl CoA is formed during the catabolism.

How is amino acid converted to glucose?

A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. The production of glucose from glucogenic amino acids involves these amino acids being converted to alpha keto acids and then to glucose, with both processes occurring in the liver.

Can amino acids be converted to acetyl CoA?

Deaminated amino acids can be converted into pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or some components of the citric acid cycle to enter the pathways of glucose catabolism. Several amino acids can enter the glucose catabolism pathways at multiple locations.

Which amino acids can be converted to acetyl CoA?

Portions of the carbon skeleton of six amino acids-tryptophan, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, and isoleucine-yield acetyl-CoA and/or acetoacetyl-CoA; the latter is then converted into acetyl-CoA (Fig. 17-24).

Can protein be converted to acetyl CoA?

Proteins are hydrolyzed by a variety of enzymes in cells. Connection of Amino Acids to Glucose Metabolism Pathways: The carbon skeletons of certain amino acids (indicated in boxes) are derived from proteins and can feed into pyruvate, acetyl CoA, and the citric acid cycle.

What is acetyl CoA and why is it important?

Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production.

Why can’t acetyl CoA make glucose?

The most common reason cited for this is the irreversibility of the enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase. Since it is irreversible, Acetyl coA can’t get back to pyruvate to go on forming glucose. Even Pyruvate, forms oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase and then gets on the boat for gluconeogenesis.

What is the formula of acetyl CoA?


How many ways can acetyl CoA be formed?

two ways

What are the three main sources of the acetyl CoA in the cell?


  • Glycolysis of glucose.
  • Oxidation of fatty acids.
  • Amino acid deamination.

How do you increase acetyl CoA?

Since pyruvate is the direct precursor for acetyl-CoA synthesis, the most straightforward strategy for increasing acetyl-CoA flux and concentration is to increase the activity of Pdh or Pfl. Alternatively, increasing carbon flux toward pyruvate also drives formation of acetyl-CoA.

What is the fate of acetyl CoA?

In normal condition, acetyl-CoA is mainly channeled into the Krebs cycle for energy production. In overnutrition state, acetyl-CoA can be used to store excess energy by forming fatty acids. Acetyl-CoA is also the source for cholesterol synthesis. In starved state, acetyl-CoA is converted into ketone bodies.