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What is uniform flow depth?

From that point on, the flow velocity and flow depth remain constant. Such a flow, in which the flow depth does not change with distance, is called uniform flow, and the corresponding flow depth is called the normal depth.

How do you calculate normal depth in open channel flow?

Answer: normal depth = 1.02 m. (b) Geometry: trapezoidal cross-section with base width b, surface width + 2 × (2ℎ) and two sloping side lengths √ℎ2 + (2ℎ)2 = ℎ√5.

What is the condition for critical flow formula?

critical flow Critical flow occurs when the flow velocity in a channel equals the wave velocity generated by a disturbance or obstruction. In this condition the Froude number (Fr) = 1.

What is critical depth in open channel flow?

The concept of critical depth is conventionally defined in open-channel hydraulics (Chow 1959; Montes 1998; Chanson 2004) as the depth at which the specific energy reaches a minimum value, considering the mean specific energy Hm within the whole flow section in flows with parallel streamlines.

What is the difference between open-channel flow and pipe flow?

Pipe flow does not have a free surface which is found in open-channel flow. Pipe flow, being confined within closed conduit, does not exert direct atmospheric pressure, but does exert hydraulic pressure on the conduit. Not all flow within a closed conduit is considered pipe flow.

What does Froude number mean?

The Froude number is a measurement of bulk flow characteristics such as waves, sand bedforms, flow/depth interactions at a cross section or between boulders. The denominator represents the speed of a small wave on the water surface relative to the speed of the water, called wave celerity.

What is Froude number formula?

It is generally expressed as Fr = v/(gd)1/2, in which d is depth of flow, g is the gravitational acceleration (equal to the specific weight of the water divided by its density, in fluid mechanics), v is the celerity of a small surface (or gravity) wave, and Fr is the Froude number.

What is characteristic length of cylinder?

If your object is a cylinder placed horizontally the characteristic length is determined by the diameter D of the cylinder. The characteristic length is commonly defined as the volume of the body divided by the surface area of the body, i.e. The surface area should include the top and bottom of the cylinder.