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Climates are classified according to two major factors: elevation and latitude.
Meteorologists measure things like air pressure and relative humidity, but the only actual variables of the atmosphere are water content and temperature. Since amount of water and temperature are so important in the atmosphere, it stands to reason that these are the two most important elements for describing climate.
There are many elements that make up both the weather and the climate of a geographical location. The most significant of these elements are temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, solar irradiance, humidity, precipitation, condensation and topography.
Rainfall and temperature can affect the rate in which rocks weather. High temperatures and greater rainfall increase the rate of chemical weathering. 2. Rocks in tropical regions exposed to abundant rainfall and hot temperatures weather much faster than similar rocks residing in cold, dry regions.
The 3 main factors that affect precipitation are prevailing winds, the presence of mountains, and seasonal winds.
A rock weathers faster when more of its surface area is exposed. A big block of granite has very little surface area exposed relative to its large volume. Smaller blocks of granite have the same volume as the larger rock, but they have a much greater surface area exposed.
Granite itself does not dissolve in water the way other soluble do. However, given time the acids in the air and in groundwater will attack the minerals of which granite is composed and slowly, very slowly, dissolve the quartz and convert the feldspars and ferromagnian minerals to clays.
Granitic and gneissic domes in the humid southeastern United States appear to eroding at about 10 m/My. Our data suggest that granite, exposed in a variety of tectonic and non-glacial climatic settings, erodes quite slowly — on the order of a meter to perhaps a few tens of meters in a million years.